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Home > Industry Information > Common fault analysis and solution for reciprocating piston air compressor

Common fault analysis and solution for reciprocating piston air compressor

2021-05-23

Common Fault Analysis and Solution of Reciprocating Piston Air Compressor Li Liming China Southwest Branch of Gezhouba Group Co., Ltd., Kunming, Yunnan Province can solve the problem quickly and effectively, and improve the efficiency of air compressor.

Air compressors play a wide range of roles in mining, machinery manufacturing, chemistry, petroleum, metallurgy, and Casting. This paper mainly introduces the reciprocating piston air compressor. Its working principle is: the crankshaft rotates once, the piston reciprocates once, and the process of intake, compression and exhaust is successively realized in the cylinder, that is, a working cycle is completed.

Its advantages are simple structure, long service life, and easy to achieve large capacity and high voltage output. The disadvantage is that the vibration is large, the noise is large, and because the exhaust gas is intermittent, the output is pulsed, and a gas tank is required.

This paper focuses on the failures and solutions often encountered in the working process of reciprocating piston air compressors.

1 Failure analysis of the host can not start and stop in the control loop: due to more electrical components, the failure rate is relatively more. The start button, stop button or switch may cause the host to fail to start or stop due to improper operation, and the fault will be stopped. If the host start button, stop button, and stop button are not properly operated (excessive force), the button will be stuck on the edge of the housing and cannot be reset. The former host cannot be shut down, and the latter host cannot be started. The stop button has a self-locking device, and must be reset after operation. Otherwise, the host cannot be started, and the host power supply cannot be turned on. The transfer switch is a control interlock device, and the twisted position is incorrect, and the alarm is stopped when the host is started. When the air compressor is suddenly stopped with a large load current, the upper and lower contacts of the AC contactor are easily blocked by the arc pulling. When the stop button is pressed, the contacts of the contactor cannot be disconnected and cannot be stopped normally. These require the operator and maintenance personnel to understand the mastery, but also need to be familiar with its working principle and performance. When problems occur, it can be handled in time to ensure reliable and safe operation of the machine.

The reduction in the amount of exhaust gas is related to the tightness of the air muffler filter and the air valve, and the air muffler filter must be cleaned frequently. Cleaning the dirt on the valve plate and the valve plate can help ensure the normal displacement of the air compressor.

1) Leakage of the first stage intake valve: The volume of the upper cylinder of the piston is reduced, and the gas is compressed. At this time, a part of the compressed gas leaks from the intake valve to the atmosphere.

The first stage exhaust valve leaks: when the cylinder piston is moved up and down, part of the compressed gas that has been compressed by the last working cycle into the primary pressure aftercooler leaks back into the cylinder from the exhaust valve, so that the slave The amount of gas entering the cylinder is reduced; 2) The principle of leakage of the second-stage intake valve and the exhaust valve is the same as that of the first-stage inlet and outlet valves, except that the second-stage inlet and exhaust valves leak. After the first stage is compressed, the gas pressure in the intercooler is increased. After the first stage pressure, the gas pressure in the intercooler exceeds the pressure set by the first stage pressure relief valve, and the compressed gas will open the first stage. The safety valve discharges excess gas into the atmosphere; 3) the piston ring, cylinder liner and piston ring groove wear exceeds the normal matching clearance, and the compressed gas forms a gas leakage into the crankcase inside the cylinder; 4) the inner leakage of the cooler: The compressed gas leaks from the cooling water pipe into the cooling water jacket; 5) the pressure of the first stage inlet and the gas is relatively large; 6) the intake pipe has insufficient air supply or excessive resistance, including the release valve issuing card, which cannot be fully opened; Causes and troubleshooting of the fault 3.1 oil pressure of the circulating system

Remedy: repair or replace the oil pump; tighten the connecting parts of the oil pipe; inspect, clean, clear the oil pipe; check the bearing bush, journal, crankshaft oil passage plug loose or loose; clean the oil filter; check the oil pressure regulating valve ball Wear and tear.

The main reason: the water pressure is too low, the flow rate is too small, the water pipe leaks or clogging, scaling; the compressed gas leaks into the cooling water, and a large amount of bubbles and gas are seen out at the end of the cooling water.

Remedy: open large amount of water, increase water pressure, clean and check the cooling water channel for blockage; check cylinder head gasket for damage and replace the cylinder head gasket; check and handle the intercooler seal.

The main reason is: insufficient cooling water, after the scale in the water pipe is over; the piston is not working properly; the suction temperature exceeds the specified value; the exhaust valve leaks.

Remedy: increase the cooling water flow, clean the water channel; check the gap between the piston, piston ring and cylinder, adjust to the normal specified range, check the piston rod for bending deformation; check the inlet and outlet valve and the valve seat mating surface In case of serious wear, it should be treated or replaced; check if the valve spring is deformed or broken.

3.4 There are abnormal sounds or abnormal vibrations in the cylinder. The main reason is that the piston stop clearance is small; the piston rod and the piston are connected and the fastening nut is loose; the valve is not working properly and the valve spring is damaged.

Remedy: Check the adjustment stop clearance; tighten the connecting parts; check the valve and spring for deformation and breakage; change the piping design and handle the compressor foundation.

The main reason: air valve, packing, piston ring leakage is too large; pressure gauge failure.

Elimination method: Check the replacement of parts with excessive wear; replace the pressure gauge.

The main reason is that the connecting rod nut is loose; the gap between the large head tile and the small head bushing of the connecting rod is too large; the gap between the cross head and the slide is too large.

Remedy: Tighten the nut; check the replacement connecting rod and bushing; replace the crosshead.

1) When repairing and replacing parts, it must be determined that the pressure in the air compressor system has been released, separated from other pressure sources, the switch on the main circuit has been disconnected, and (down to page 161) application technology BJJ1- The 2-660/380x selective leak detection relay is a high-performance explosion-proof relay developed by Beijing Hongxing Explosion-proof Electrical Appliance Factory. It is suitable for mine diverticulum containing explosive dangerous gas (methane air mixture and coal dust). It can be used as AC 660. The /380V neutral point ungrounded power supply system has selective detection of leakage protection devices. The main function of the device: in the AC 660/380V neutral point ungrounded power supply system, the zero-sequence direction principle is used to realize the selective protection of the asymmetric leakage of the four branches; the additional current principle is used to realize the symmetric leakage protection and not Backup protection for symmetrical leakage: It has the function of testing without stopping the power grid; and the high-voltage switch can realize the so-called *5m protection of leakage from the transformer to the feed switch section; it can conduct insulation monitoring for the power grid; The KXL-1 mine low-pressure selective leakage protection device developed by Beijing Coal Management Cadre College, China University of Mining and Technology and Sichuan Changsheng Machinery Plant is suitable for underground coal mine 660V/380V neutral point ungrounded power supply system. It includes two sets of plug-ins, one set is installed in the total leak detection relay of the low-voltage power supply system, and the other set is installed in each branch feed switch DW80. For the low-voltage power supply system within 12 branches, selective leakage protection can be achieved. This product has high accuracy and reliability when used in underground low-voltage power grids, and the response speed is very fast when leaking. It can certainly reduce the loss caused by leakage and the impact of leakage accidents. It can also prevent strong power transmission to the leakage line, thus enhancing the safety and reliability of the underground low-voltage power supply, which can bring very obvious economic benefits. In the long run, it has important practical significance.

It is well known that the underground coal is humid, the insulation of electrical equipment and cables is easily damp, and the narrow space under the well, the rock (coal) falling and the mine car falling off occur, and the insulation of electrical equipment and cables is also easy. Suffering from mechanical damage, it is said that the probability of personal electric shock is higher than that of the ground and other industries. In the event of a leakage fault, the lighter will damage the electrical equipment, causing a short-circuit accident, and in the case of personal electric shock, even causing coal dust and gas explosion. . Therefore, for the leading cadres of the coal mine, it is necessary to pay attention to the management of the power supply system, and in combination with the actual situation of the mine, increase the investment in the maintenance and renewal of electrical equipment to ensure the normal operation of the power supply system.

In addition, it is necessary to strengthen the basic management of electromechanical equipment, establish and improve various phase management systems, and ensure strict implementation of rules and regulations. Finally, it should be noted that the electromechanical safety ideological education work of the workers under the mines should effectively improve the responsibility of the cadres and employees from the height of the mind, reduce the leakage faults in the coal mine power supply system, and ensure the safe power supply underground. Only in this way can the mine be steadily advanced along a safe, harmonious and healthy development path.


W series mining piston air compressors adopt Sweden imported thick stainless steel reed valve with small resistance, high efficiency and durability. Enhanced special automatic clutches are reliable and durable. Intake, exhaust separated high-strength patent cylinder head have good heat insulation and heat dissipation. Patent design streamline cooling fan ensures large air volume and fast cooling. Four buckle-type piston ring structure improves compensation seal, long life. They are portable piston air compressors suitable for outdoor.


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